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Clinotronic Effect Application in Vacuum Sources of Terahertz Electromagnetic Oscillations (To the 100th anniversary of G. Ya. Levin, the inventor of the O-type BWT-clinotron)
Radiophysics and Electronics, Vol. 23, #3, pp.9-39 (2018) (in Russian)

V.D. Yeryomka and O.F. Pishko

Subject and purpose. In the vacuum microwave electronics, with increasing the operating frequency of the source electromagnetic oscillations, most attention is paid to increasing the efficiency of electron-wave interaction on the Vavilov-Cherenkov effect of rectilinear electronic flows with a slow spatial harmonic of electromagnetic waves in metallic periodic slowing structures (PSS). At the same time, isufficient attention was paid to the study of the effect of the coefficient of the use of rectilinear electronic flows on the frequency energy Cherenkov oscillators and amplifiers of electromagnetic oscillations. Clinotron effect, reveated in 1956 in the process of development and research of O-type backward wave tubs (O-type BWT) of short-wave ranges Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics of Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, demonstrated a significant influence of the utilization factor of a spatially developed rectilinear electronic flows on the frequency-energy characteristics of the O-type BWT. Methods and methodology. There is no publication in the scientific literature that summarizes the results of research into the frequency-energy characteristics of vacuum sources of terahertz (THz) electromagnetic oscillations with spatially developed electron currents, created during the last 50 years and differing in the principle of action, by theoretical and experimental methods of influence of the clinotronic effect on the frequency-energy characteristics. Results. The analysis of the frequency-energy characteristics of THz BWT-clinotrons, THz-clinoorotrons, THz-gyroclinotrons, THz-clinoorbictrons was carriedout. Based on the analysis of the results of the research, there is a conclusion about the existence of a close relationship between the value of the coefficient of the use of spatiallydeveloped electron flows and frequency-energy and also the mass-size characteristics of vacuum sources of THz electromagnetic oscillations. Сonclusions. The use of the clinotronic effect in vacuum sources of electromagnetic oscillations with spatially developed electron currents contributes to the creation of compact generators and signal amplifiers in the "THz slit" of the spectrum of electromagnetic oscillations.